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    所在位置:上海自考網 > 自考試題 > 2018年上海自考《基礎英語》測試題二

    2018年上海自考《基礎英語》測試題二

    2019-05-20 15:19:35   來源:上海自考網    點擊:   
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      Passage two

      The need for a satisfactory education is more important than ever before. Nowadays, without

      a qualification from a reputable school or university, the odds of landing that plum job advertised

      in the paper are considerably shortened. Moreover, one’s present level of education could fall well

      short of future career requirements.

      It is no secret that competition is the driving force behind the need to obtain increasingly

      higher qualifications. In the majority of cases, the urge to upgrade is no longer the result of an

      insatiable thirst for knowledge. The pressure is coming from within the workplace to compete with

      ever more qualified job applicants, and in many occupations one must now battle with colleagues

      in the reshuffle for the position one already holds.

      Striving to become better educated is hardly a new concept. Wealthy parents have always

      been willing to spend the vast amounts of extra money necessary to send their children to schools

      with a perceived educational edge. Working adults have long attended night schools and refresher

      courses. Competition for employment has been around since the curse of working for a living

      began. Is the present situation so very different to that of the past?

      The difference now is that the push is universal and from without as well as within. A student

      at secondary school receiving low grades is no longer as easily accepted by his or her peers as was

      once the case. Similarly, in the workplace, unless employees are engaged in part-time study, they

      may be frowned upon by their employers and peers and have difficulty even standing still. In fact,

      in these cases, the expectation is for careers to go backwards and earning capacity to take an

      appreciable nosedive.

      At first glance, the situation would seem to be laudable; a positive response to the exhortation

      by a former Prime Minister, Bob Hawke, for Australia to become the clever country. Yet there are

      serious ramifications according to at least one educational psychologist. Dr Brendan Gatsby has

      caused some controversy in academic circles by suggesting that a bias towards what he terms

      paper’ excellence might cause more problems than it is supposed to solve. Gatsby raises a number

      of issues that affect the individual as well as society in general.

      Firstly, he believes the extra workload involved is resulting in abnormally high stress levels

      in both students at secondary school and adults studying after working hours. Secondly, skills

      which might be more relevant to the undertaking of a sought after job are being overlooked by

      employers interviewing candidates without qualifications on paper. These two areas of concern for

      the individual are causing physical and emotional stress respectively.

      Gatsby also argues that there are attitudinal changes within society to the exalted role

      education now plays in determining how the spoils of working life are distributed. Individuals of

      all ages are being driven by social pressures to achieve academic success solely for monetary

      considerations instead of for the joy of enlightenment. There is the danger that some universities

      are becoming degree factories with an attendant drop in standards. Furthermore, our education

      system may be rewarding doggedness above creativity; the very thing Australians have been

      encouraged to avoid. But the most undesirable effect of this academic paper chase, Gatsby says, is

      the disadvantage that “user pays” higher education confers on the poor, who invariably lose out to

      the more financially favoured.

      Naturally, although there is agreement that learning can cause stress, Gatsby’s comments

      regarding university standards have been roundly criticised as alarmist by most educationists who

      point out that, by any standard of measurement, Australia’s education system overall, at both

      secondary and tertiary levels, is equal to that of any in the world.

      Do the following statements reflecting the views of the writer in the reading passage.

      TRUE if the statement reflects the views of the writer

      FALSE if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

      NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage

      46. Most people who upgrade their qualifications do so for the joy of learning.

      47. In some jobs, the position you hold must be reapplied for.

      48. According to the text, students who performed bally at school used to be accepted by their

      classmates.

      49. Employees who do not undertake extra study may find their salary decreased by employers.

      50. Australians appear to have responded to the call by a former Prime Minister to become better

      qualified.

      Section B

      Directions: Read the following passage carefully and then give your answear to the question.

      Write your answers on the Answer Sheet. (3×5=15 points)

      Passage three

      In the past we have celebrated trees in poetry and song, myth and legend, and even

      worshipped them. Our ancestors lived in the forest and our attachment to trees has deep

      psychological roots, traces of which remain in popular superstitions like the saying, “touch wood”.

      Richard St Barbe Baker, the man who helped to save the Californian redwoods, and who has

      spent most of his long life planting trees around the world,has written: “Man and trees, water and

      trees, man and water are inseparable”.

      To put it plainly, trees are vital for our continued survival. They provide us with oxygen and

      absorb carbon dioxide. They trap soil and moisture, thus preventing the soil being washed away by

      erosion. In large parts of the world they provide the only source of fuel. Their fruits, nuts and oils

      are a vital part of our human diet. We have built our houses, our transport, our tools, even our

      musical instruments from them. They supply medicines, fibers, dyes, rubber and thousands of

      other essential products. They provide shelter for millions of life forms. They shade us and inspire

      us.

      Yet in our modem world trees have become victims of the chainsaw and the earth-mover. We

      have forgotten their value. Having exhausted our own forests, we are now destroying the forests of

      the southern hemisphere. An area the size of a football field is being cut down or burned every

      second. Every year fifteen million hectares are removed, equivalent to an area the size of England

      and Wales combined. At present cutting rates, the world’s tropical forests will be completely gone

      within twenty years.

      Only one thing can halt this rapidly deteriorating situation—planting trees. The World Bank

      estimates that about twenty million hectares of forest must be planted in the next twenty years if

      the demand for fuel is to be met. At present it looks as if world efforts will only reach one-tenth of

      that. In the south, the pressure of population and inappropriate agricultural systems are doing the

      damage. Countries are often forced to sacrifice their forests because of their desperate need for

      foreign exchange.

      In his book The World Needs Its Forests, American ecologist Eric Eckholm links the two

      ideas of deforestation and development. He writes this: “Uncontrolled deforestation is usually a

      symptom of a society’s inability to get a grip on other fundamental problems, such as

      unemployment, rapid population growth and the incapacity to regulate private enterprise to protect

      the public interest.”

      51. In your own words explain the philosophy of Richard St Barbe Baker.

      52. In what way do trees prevent soil erosion?

      53. If we carry on destroying forests in the southern hemisphere at the present rate, what will

      eventually happen?

      54. What can we do to prevent the present situation deteriorating still further?

      55. How many reasons for uncontrolled deforestation does ecologist Eric Eekholm mention in his

      book The World Needs Its Forests? P1ease state the reasons.

     ?、? Translation: (45 points)

      A. Translate the following passages into Chinese. (30 points)

      The world economy has managed, with some indigestion, to swallow the rise of oil prices

      past $80 a barrel. How well could it survive $100 a barrel?

      The answer is quite well -- so long as several conditions still hold true. The price rise would

      probably have to be gradual. Inflation couldn’t get so bad as to force big interest-rate hikes.

      Oil-rich nations would need to pump their profits back into U.S. and European economies.

      All of this has happened so far. The happy confluence may continue, though fears remain

      strong that high energy prices will tip the U.S. into recession.

      A host of factors, including tight oil supplies and a weak U.S. dollar, suggest that oil prices

      have further to rise. Some analysts continue to believe that oil is destined to reach an all-time high,

      as measured in today’s dollars, of more than $101 a barrel. The record was set in 1980. On Friday

      in New York, the benchmark crude-oil futures price closed down $1.22, or 1.5%, to finish at

      $81.66, a little more than $2 off the all-time high, not adjusting for inflation.

      High oil prices could lead to ugly consequences if they hit consumers’ pocketbooks --

      especially in the U.S., where the housing slump is already hurting the economy. Consumer

      spending has been the primary engine of growth in the U.S. in recent years.

      Target Corp. was among the major retailers in the last week cutting sales forecasts. Target

      expects September sales at stores open at least a year to rise just 1.5% to 2.5%, down from an

      earlier expectation of 4% to 6% growth. The main reason has to do with what some call the

      Wal-Mart effect. For every extra dollar taken from drivers’ pockets at the pump in the form of

      higher prices in recent years, low-cost exporters from China and elsewhere have put roughly $1.50

      back in the form of cheaper retail goods. Even at today’s near-record prices, U.S. households

      today spend less than 4% of their disposable income at the pump, vs. over 6% in 1980.

      B. Translate the following passage into English. (15 points)

      一項研究結果表明,當夫妻雙方勞燕分飛時,和男性相比,女性往往想要占有更多的共

      同財產。

      在一份包括房子、照片和寵物等 24 類物品的清單中,接受調查的男性普遍希望把其中

      的19 樣留給前妻,而女性只愿意他們的前夫拿走其中的8 樣東西。

      盡管女性并不是特別想要諸如電視機、CD、DVD 碟片和烤面包機等,但他們仍然希望

      前夫也不要帶走這些東西。

      Part Ⅴ Writing (30points)

      Some people hold the view that a student’s success in university study follows the same

      pattern as that of farming, which is characterized by the sowing the seeds, nurturing growth and

      harvesting the rewards’ process. Write an essay of about 300 words on the topic given below to

      support this view with your own experience as a university student.

      SOWING THE SEEDS,NURTURING GROWTH AND HARVESTING THE REWARDS

      In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second

      part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should

      bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a summary.

      Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow

      the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.


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